Commonly Abused Drugs and Medications Used to Treat Addiction
There are many prescription drugs that are legal, but widely abused, both intentionally and as a result of their inherently addictive nature. Each drug summary includes the original intended use of the drug and the manner in which it is abused. The article also includes information on drugs used to treat alcoholism such as Lithium and Valium, and medications used to treat substance abuse such as methadone, buprenorphine and naloxone.
Adderall (amphetamine/dextroamphetamine): This is a central nervous system stimulant used for the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults and children ages 6 and older.1 The risk for abuse of this drug is particularly high among high school and college students. The most recent government Monitoring the Future survey of teen drug use found that 7.5% of high school seniors in 2015 had used Adderall without a prescription. Adderall can be addictive and lead to hallucinations, delusions and full-blown psychosis. People who misuse it can become aggressive, paranoid and anxious, and, in the worst-case scenario, suffer a heart attack, seizure and death.2
Ambien (zolpidem): The active ingredient affects chemicals in the brain that may be unbalanced in people with insomnia. Since being approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in 1993, the drug has become a favorite among insomniacs, shift workers, and jet-lagged travelers. Unfortunately, the sleeping pill comes with a potentially dangerous drug dose gender gap. A study conducted by the FDA discovered that men metabolize the drug much faster than women. Too many people who were prescribed the drug complained of high levels of impairment the morning after, which created a dangerous combination when driving or performing activities requiring mental alertness.3 Two high-profile automobile accidents brought greater public awareness to the risks associated with Ambien use. These involved two members of the Kennedy family: Patrick Kennedy, son of the late Sen. Ted Kennedy, in 2006, and his cousin Kerry Kennedy, daughter of the late Robert F. Kennedy, in 2012.4,5
Next-day psychomotor impairment, including impaired driving, is more likely to occur if the drug is taken with less than seven to eight hours of sleep, a higher than recommended dose is taken, the drug is taken with other central nervous system depressants or alcohol, or if it is taken with drugs that have the potential for altering the blood levels of Ambien. As such, the FDA updated the label warnings about the risk of adverse reactions for drivers and machine operators. These include drowsiness, prolonged reaction time, dizziness, sleepiness, blurred/double vision, reduced alertness and impaired driving in the morning after taking the medication.6
Antabuse (disulfiram): This medication blocks an enzyme that is involved in metabolizing alcohol, causing unpleasant side effects when any amount of alcohol is consumed. While this is one of the oldest drugs used to treat alcoholism, it is no longer considered a first-line treatment due to difficulties with compliance and toxicity.7
Ativan (lorazepam): This is a benzodiazepine with sedative effects, used most commonly for the treatment of severe anxiety disorders. It is typically not prescribed for long-term use because even after a relatively short duration, it can be addictive and therefore subject to abuse. The number of emergency room visits due to the use of benzodiazepines has been climbing steadily. The Drug Enforcement Administration reports that more than 20 million people in the U.S. have abused drugs like lorazepam at some point in their lives.8
Buprenorphine: This medication for addiction acts on the receptor targets of heroin and morphine without producing the same intense “high” or dangerous side effects. The typical treatment involves patients initially taking the drug alone and then in a co-formulation with naloxone (an opioid antagonist). The Prescription Opioid Addiction Treatment Study (POATS) showed that fewer than 10% of prescription opioid-dependent patients who were initially treated with buprenorphine were opioid dependent after 42 months. However, there is a drawback to buprenorphine, which appears to occur in conjunction with heroin use. Study participants with a history of heroin use were more likely to be opioid dependent at 42 months.9
Campral (acamprosate calcium): A medication used to treat alcohol abuse, it is believed to restore the natural balance of chemicals in the brain (neurotransmitters). It should be used as one component of integrated treatment that includes counseling and psychological support and should be prescribed only after alcohol detox.10
Codeine: When used as prescribed, this is a relatively mild opiate that is effective as a pain reliever and cough suppressant. However, codeine is classified as a Schedule II drug, meaning it has a “high potential for abuse.” Codeine attaches to the same cell receptors targeted by illegal opioids like heroin. Taking higher doses than recommended can result in euphoric feelings similar to those produced by other opioid drugs. Codeine also acts as a central nervous system depressant, producing calming or sedating effects.11 Sizzurp, also known as “Lean” and “Purple Drank,” is a mixture of cough medicine containing codeine and soft drinks or candy for flavor. Its taste is misleading for impressionable teens, but its use comes with dangers ranging from nausea, dizziness, impaired vision, memory loss, hallucinations and seizures, to coma and death.12
Darvocet (acetaminophen/propoxyphene): Due to successful marketing, this was a widely prescribed narcotic used to treat mild-to-moderate pain. The FDA received new clinical data showing that the drug put people at risk for potentially serious or even fatal heart rhythm abnormalities. As a result of this study and new epidemiological data, the agency concluded that the risks of the medication outweighed the benefits. In November 2010, Xanodyne Pharmaceuticals, the maker of Darvon and Darvocet, agreed to withdraw the medication from the U.S. market.13
Dilaudid (hydromorphone): Like most prescription opiates, this is available in an extended release (ER) formula and an instant release (IR) formula. It is prescribed as a pain reliever and cough suppressant, however, it is frequently abused. In 2012, more than 3.9 million prescriptions for hydromorphone were dispensed in the U.S. In 2014, an estimated 4.3 million people in the U.S. used narcotic pain relievers including Dilaudid that were not prescribed to them.14
Fentanyl: Formulated in the 1950s, this synthetic opioid analgesic was thought to be a safer and more effective alternative to the painkillers morphine and meperidine. It is typically prescribed for the treatment of severe post-surgery pain and sometimes for chronic pain that does not respond to other medications. The drug is 50 to 100 times more potent than morphine and 30 to 50 times more potent than heroin. According to research published in the journal Annals of Pharmacotherapy, as little as a quarter-milligram of fentanyl can be fatal. To put that in perspective, a standard aspirin tablet is 325 milligrams, which is 1,300 times bigger. Like other opioid drugs, fentanyl works by binding to the body’s opioid receptors, which are found in areas of the brain that control pain and emotions.15 Fentanyl sold on the street is often mixed with heroin or cocaine. Street names for fentanyl and heroin-laced fentanyl include Apache, China Girl, China White, Dance Fever, Friend, Goodfella, Jackpot, Murder 8, TNT and Tango and Cash.16 Public awareness of the dangers of fentanyl increased exponentially when music icon Prince died from an apparently self-administered dose of fentanyl in April 2016.15
Hydrocodone: This is an opioid prescribed for the management of pain not well controlled by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory or other non-narcotic analgesic options. It is the most commonly prescribed and abused opioid drug in the United States, with nearly 100% of the world’s consumption attributed to use in the U.S. According to the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, twice as many teens ages 12 to 17 abuse hydrocodone-containing prescriptions than oxycodone-containing drugs.17
Ketamine: Used in human and veterinary medicine, this drug induces dissociative anesthesia, which means that users experience out-of-body sensations including distorted sight and sounds and feeling detached from their environment and self. There have been reports of veterinary clinics being robbed for their ketamine supplies. Related to PCP, it is more powerful than speed or cocaine weight for weight, which makes it easy to accidentally overdose. In some cases, it has been used as a date rape drug because it is odorless and colorless. Ketamine is considered a “club drug” most commonly encountered at nightclubs and “raves.”18 According to two studies published in the American Journal of Pathology, the drug may cause the cells lining the bladder to initiate their own death, enabling urine to penetrate underlying tissues, causing a painful condition called cystitis.19
Klonopin (clonazepam): Like Xanax, this is a benzodiazepine used to treat anxiety disorders, and, secondarily, seizure disorders. Even with a legitimate prescription, this drug can lead to tolerance, dependency and addiction. Clonazepam can cause dangerous central nervous system depression, leading to significantly impaired alertness and slowed bodily functions, especially with higher than recommended doses and when the drug is used recreationally.20
Librium (chlordiazepoxide): Approved by the FDA in 1960, this is a benzodiazepine used for anxiety relief and muscle relaxation, as well as the treatment of alcohol withdrawal. Misuse of Librium in teens can involve taking a higher than recommended dose or opening the capsules and snorting the contents to provide a more immediate and intense high. It can be habit-forming and may lead to dependence if used in high doses or for a long period of time.21
Lorcet (hydrocodone/acetaminophen): See Vicodin.
Lortab (hydrocodone/acetaminophen): See Vicodin.
Lunesta (eszopiclone): Approved by the FDA in 2004, this sleeping pill has become a household name for sleep-deprived Americans. Lunesta is the second most popular sleeping aid after Ambien, with 3 million prescriptions dispensed to 923,000 patients in the U.S. in 2013. Like Ambien, this drug is relatively safe but carries some risks including dependency, memory problems and daytime drowsiness. In 2014, the FDA warned that Lunesta can cause next-day impairment of driving and other activities requiring mental alertness. As a result, they recommended decreasing the starting dose of Lunesta to 1 mg at bedtime.22
Methadone: The chemical structure of this drug was first produced in the 1930s by German scientists searching for a pain-killing drug (analgesic) that would not be as addictive as morphine. While this opioid is used to treat moderate-to-severe pain, the most widespread use is for heroin addiction. By the 1970s, there were more than 75,000 people in maintenance programs that helped ease heroin withdrawal symptoms. A number of studies have looked at the effectiveness of methadone programs, and a majority have found that methadone can reduce narcotic-related deaths, crimes related to heroin use, the spread of AIDS and help users gain control of their lives.23
Although methadone is intended to prevent dependence and addiction and help with withdrawal symptoms, it is highly addictive and some addicts take it as their primary drug.23 Methadone accounted for only 2% of opioid prescriptions in 2009, but was involved in an estimated 30% of overdose deaths. In 2006, the FDA issued warnings about the risks of prescribing methadone for pain. In 2014, there were 3,400 reported methadone overdose deaths, the lowest number since 2003, which the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention attributes to the reduction in prescribing methadone for pain.24
Morphine: The most abundant analgesic opiate derived from the poppy plant, morphine is a potent drug used for severe pain relief and is frequently associated with terminal illnesses such as end-stage cancer. The drug is abused illicitly for recreational purposes, with an average age of first-time use of 21 years. Morphine, like other opioids, acts on the opiate receptors of the central nervous system, producing feelings of euphoria. Morphine addiction occurs rapidly if an individual consistently abuses the drug and can result in serious consequences. These include anxiety, depression, feeling irritable, an exaggerated sense of well-being, severe irrational fears, fantasizing and hallucinations.25
Naloxone: (Narcan): This is a highly effective antidote indicated for the emergency treatment of known or suspected opioid overdose, as manifested by respiratory and/or central nervous system depression. Although emergency medical personnel and hospitals have used this drug for decades, it is being used with growing frequency by police departments and families of addicted individuals to reverse opioid overdose. For many years, it was only available as an injection. Now, as of late 2015, Naloxone is also available as a nasal spray. This provides family members, caregivers and first responders with an easy-to-use, needle-free alternative to injectable naloxone. Overdose deaths related to oxycodone, hydrocodone, morphine, heroin and illegally produced fentanyl have more than tripled since 1999, with about 28,000 people dying in 2014 alone. This opioid abuse epidemic sparked the enactment of legislation in many states to make naloxone widely available.26,27
Naltrexone: Available in pill form or as an injectable, this FDA-approved medication is used to treat opioid and alcohol use disorders. It works differently in the body than buprenorphine and methadone. Naltrexone blocks the euphoric and sedative effects of drugs such as heroin, morphine and codeine by binding and blocking opioid receptors, thereby reducing opioid cravings. In a similar manner, naltrexone blocks the euphoric effects and feelings associated with alcohol intoxication. Unlike some other addiction drugs, there is no potential for abuse or diversion with naltrexone.28
Norco (hydrocodone/acetaminophen): See Vicodin.
OxyContin (oxycodone): This is a semi-synthetic prescription opioid painkiller derived from laboratory modification of thebaine, one of the opium poppy’s natural mind-altering chemicals. Doctors primarily prescribe this medication for people who have persistent pain that is moderate to severe. While most people receive oxycodone in tablet or pill form, the medication also comes in a liquid that can be injected into a vein, muscle or under the skin.29 According to the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, over the last 20 years, more than 7 million Americans have abused OxyContin. Opioids are responsible for claiming more than 190,000 lives in the U.S. since 1999, with most experts blaming OxyContin for setting off the nation’s deadly prescription opioid epidemic.30
Percocet (oxycodone/acetaminophen): Percocet is the same drug as OxyContin but with the addition of acetaminophen, a mild pain reliever and fever reducer and the active ingredient in Tylenol. Like heroin and morphine, Percocet affects the brain and the central nervous system, altering the way the brain perceives pain. It is often abused because it evokes a “high” similar to heroin that is characterized by euphoria, relaxation and heightened pleasure. A 2012 study showed that about 16 million people ages 12 and older used oxycodone for nonmedical purposes in their lifetime. This was a sizable increase from the previous year and was evidence of a growing public health crisis involving adolescents and teens, who comprise a significant portion of those abusing these substances. In addition to the dangers of oxycodone, Percocet poses the potential for severe liver damage due to the acetaminophen.31
ReVia: See naltrexone.
Ritalin (methylphenidate): This is a central nervous system stimulant used for the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults and children ages 6 and older. Abuse in adolescents and young adults is tied to the drug’s ability to keep users awake and alert for hours to pull all-nighters. In addition, when Ritalin is snorted, its effects mimic those of cocaine, producing a feeling of euphoria. Ritalin comes in small water-soluble pills, about the size and shape of aspirin tablets, making it easy for abusers to either grind the pills into a powder and snort them or convert them into a liquid that can be injected. The Partnership Attitude Tracking Study found that 1.3 million teens reported misusing Ritalin or Adderall in the past 30 days.32, 33
Rohypnol (flunitrazepam): A type of benzodiazepine with the street name roofies, this drug is prescribed in Europe and Latin America as a sleeping pill, but is illegal in the U.S. It is a tranquilizer that is about 10 times more potent than Valium. Abusers crush the pills and snort the powder, sprinkle it on marijuana and smoke it, dissolve it in a drink or inject it. Due to its ability to render the victim incapable of resisting, Rohypnol has been used to commit sexual assaults, giving it the reputation of a “date-rape” drug. The practice of surreptitiously dosing people at parties or bars with roofies first made national news in the late 1990s.34
Soma (carisoprodol): This is a muscle relaxant prescribed for the treatment of muscle pain and spasms. Soma was originally thought to have a low potential for abuse and addiction. However, recent evidence shows that it is habit-forming, especially when taken in combination with other drugs. In a person who readily metabolizes carisoprodol, large amounts result in a sleepy, hypnotic effect that may create a psychological addiction. It intensifies the effects of Xanax, creating a potentially lethal duo when taken together. Soma is abused to enhance the effectiveness of other drugs, with people creating “cocktails” that simulate the effects of narcotic substances including heroin.35
Sonata (zaleplon): This sedative/hypnotic is used primarily for the treatment of insomnia and is not as widely abused as some other sedatives such as Xanax or Lithium. However, it may still be addictive when taken in high-enough quantities or for a long duration. Sonata affects the neurotransmitters in the brain, slowing down function and enabling people to get a good night’s sleep. People who overuse Sonata report feelings of euphoria, followed by “blackouts” in which they cannot remember anything.36
Suboxone (buprenorphine/naloxone): This combination drug is typically used to facilitate detox, withdrawal and the early stages of opioid abuse recovery. It can also be used as a maintenance medication to reduce the risk of relapse. The risk of overdose is increased when it is combined with alcohol or benzodiazepines, which produces an intense high. This combination can cause extreme, widespread suppression of physiological processes and lead to slowed breathing and heart rate, coma and death.37
Subutex (buprenorphine/naloxone): This is the brand name for Suboxone.
Valium (diazepam): A benzodiazepine used to treat anxiety, muscle spasms, seizures and some of the effects of alcohol withdrawal, Valium was introduced in 1963 and quickly gained popularity for its sedative effects. Between 1969 and 1982, Valium was the most prescribed drug in the U.S., and in 1979, sales reached a peak with more than 2.3 billion pills sold. Diazepam has similar sedative and hypnotic effects as barbiturates, but is much less likely to result in lethal overdose, and is thought to have less potential for abuse and dependence. According to the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA), diazepam ranks as one of the top five benzodiazepines prescribed by doctors, as well as one of the top five sold illegally. Currently, diazepam is the third most widely abused tranquilizer in the U.S. after alprazolam (Xanax) and lorazepam (Ativan).38
Vicodin® (hydrocodone/acetaminophen): This is the same drug as hydrocodone, with the addition of acetaminophen, a mild pain reliever and fever reducer and the active ingredient in Tylenol. It is an opioid prescribed for the management of pain not well controlled by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory or other non-narcotic analgesic options. It works by blocking pain receptors in the brain. The sense of euphoria it creates makes Vicodin highly addictive. Long-term use of Vicodin poses the potential for severe liver damage due to the acetaminophen. Of all of the prescriptions containing hydrocodone, the most frequently prescribed are the brands that combine it with acetaminophen. The 2013 National Survey on Drug Use and Health showed that 24.4 million people ages 12 and older in the U.S. used hydrocodone recreationally at some point. The 2013 Monitoring the Future survey revealed that an estimated 10% of all teens in 10th and 11th grade abused Vicodin during the previous year.39
Vivitrol®: See naltrexone.
Xanax (alprazolam): Xanax is a benzodiazepine which acts on the brain and central nervous system by producing a calming or tranquilizing effect. It is commonly prescribed for the treatment of panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder and social anxiety disorder. Although alprazolam was approved by the FDA in 1981, the drug Xanax has soared in popularity in the last few years. The most serious risk of Xanax abuse is associated with taking it with other drugs and alcohol. When taken with drugs such as opiates, hypnotics, barbiturates or alcohol, the risk of overdose rises exponentially. One in 11 high school seniors admitted abusing Xanax at some point in their lives and 49% of teens who used Xanax combined it with another substance such as alcohol.40,41
- Adderall. Drugs.com website. https://www.drugs.com/adderall.html Updated November 19, 2015. Accessed August 17, 2016.
- Leonard K. Adderall: Still Keeping Teens Up at Night. US News and World Report. December 16, 2015. http://www.usnews.com/news/articles/2015-12-16/adderall-still-abused-by-many-teens-survey-shows Accessed August 17, 2016.
- Ambien Side Effects Risks 2016: Should Women Worry About Sleep Aid? Medical News Daily website. http://www.medicaldaily.com/ambien-side-effects-risks-2016-should-women-worry-about-sleep-aid-394645 Published August 11, 2016. Accessed August 17, 2016.
- Kennedy’s Crash Highlights Dangers of Ambien. ABC News website. http://abcnews.go.com/Health/story?id=1927026&page=1 Published May 5, 2006. Accessed August 17, 2016.
- Kerry Kennedy Says Ambien ‘Overtook’ Her, Causing Car Crash. ABC News website. http://abcnews.go.com/US/kerry-kennedy-ambien-overtook-causing-car-crash/story?id=22679672 Published February 26, 2014. Accessed August 17, 2016.
- FDA Elevates Warning for Psychomotor Impairment With Ambien. Neurology Advisor website. http://www.neurologyadvisor.com/sleep-disorders/fda-elevates-warning-for-psychomotor-impairment-with-ambien/article/516316/ Published August 16, 2016. Accessed August 17, 2016.
- Crowley P. Long-term drug treatment of patients with alcohol dependence. Aust Prescr. 2015;38(2):41-43. doi:10.18773/austprescr.2015.015.
- Lorazepam Abuse. Drug Abuse website. http://drugabuse.com/library/lorazepam-abuse/ Accessed August 17, 2016.
- Buprenorphine: Long-term Efficacy for Opioid Dependence. Medscape website. http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/863801 Published May 25, 2016. Accessed August 17, 2016.
- Acamprosate calcium delayed-release – oral, Campral. MedicineNet website. http://www.medicinenet.com/acamprosate_calcium_delayed-release_tablet/article.htm Updated March 2013. Accessed August 17, 2016.
- Drug Facts: Cough and Cold Medicine Abuse. National Institute on Drug Abuse website. https://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/drugfacts/cough-cold-medicine-abuse Updated May 2014. 2016. Accessed August 17, 2016.
- Sizzurp: It’s Not Cool. NIDA for Teens website. https://teens.drugabuse.gov/blog/post/sizzurp-is-not-cool Published June 13, 2013. Accessed August 17, 2016.
- News & Events: Xanodyne agrees to withdraw propoxyphene from the U.S. market. U.S. Food and Drug Administration website. http://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/ucm234350.htm Published November 19, 2010. Accessed August 17, 2016.
- Dilaudid Abuse. Drug Abuse website. http://drugabuse.com/library/dilaudid-abuse/ Accessed August 17, 2016.
- What Is Fentanyl? The Drug That Killed Prince Has Killed Thousands of Others. NBC News website. http://www.nbcnews.com/news/us-news/what-fentanyl-drug-killed-prince-has-killed-thousands-others-n584961 Published June 3, 2016. Accessed August 17, 2016.
- What is Fentanyl? National Institute on Drug Abuse website. https://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/drugfacts/fentanyl Updated June 2016. Accessed August 17, 2016.
- About Hydrocodone. Drug Abuse website. http://drugabuse.com/library/hydrocodone-abuse/ Accessed August 17, 2016.
- Ketamine. Center for Substance Abuse Research website. http://www.cesar.umd.edu/cesar/drugs/ketamine.pdf Accessed August 18, 2016.
- Excessive Ketamine Abuse Causes Bladder Cells to Commit Suicide. IFL Science website. http://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/excessive-ketamine-abuse-causes-bladder-cells-commit-suicide/ Published March 21, 2016. Accessed August 18, 2016.
- The Effects of Clonazepam Use. Drug Abuse website. http://drugabuse.com/library/the-effects-of-clonazepam-use/ Accessed August 18, 2016.
- Librium Abuse. Drug Abuse website. http://drugabuse.com/library/librium-abuse/ Accessed August 18, 2016.
- FDA Drug Safety Communication: FDA warns of next-day impairment with sleep aid Lunesta (eszopiclone) and lowers recommended dose. U.S. Food and Drug Administration website. http://www.fda.gov/Drugs/DrugSafety/ucm397260.htm Published May 15, 2014. Accessed August 18, 2016.
- Methadone. Center for Substance Abuse Research website. http://www.cesar.umd.edu/cesar/drugs/methadone.asp Updated January 6, 2016. Accessed August 18, 2016.
- Trends in Methadone Distribution for Pain Treatment, Methadone Diversion, and Overdose Deaths — United States, 2002–2014. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/65/wr/mm6526a2.htm Published July 8, 2016. Accessed August 18, 2016.
- Morphine. Global Information Network About Drugs website. http://www.ginad.org/en/drugs/narcotics/349/morphine- Accessed August 18, 2016.
- What is naloxone? Project Lazarus website. http://projectlazarus.org/patients-families/what-naloxone Accessed August 18, 2016.
- FDA approves naloxone nasal spray to reverse opioid overdose. National Institute on Drug Abuse website. https://www.drugabuse.gov/news-events/news-releases/2015/11/fda-approves-naloxone-nasal-spray-to-reverse-opioid-overdose Published November 18, 2015. Accessed August 18, 2016.
- Naltrexone. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration website. http://www.samhsa.gov/medication-assisted-treatment/treatment/naltrexone Updated May 19, 2016. Accessed August 18, 2016.
- Oxycodone. Center for Substance Abuse Research website http://www.cesar.umd.edu/cesar/drugs/oxycodone.asp Updated October 29, 2013. Accessed August 18, 2016.
- Ryan H, Girion L, Glover S. You Want a Description of Hell?’ OxyContin’s 12-Hour Problem. Los Angeles Times. May 5, 2016. http://static.latimes.com/oxycontin-part1/ Accessed August 18, 2016.
- Percocet Abuse. Drug Abuse website. http://drugabuse.com/library/percocet-abuse/ Accessed August 18, 2016.
- How Ritalin Abuse Starts. Foundation for a Drug-Free World website. http://www.drugfreeworld.org/drugfacts/ritalin/how-ritalin-abuse-starts.html Accessed August 18, 2016.
- Ritalin Abuse. Drug Abuse website. http://drugabuse.com/library/ritalin-abuse/ Accessed August 18, 2016.
- Rohypnol. Foundation for a Drug-Free World website. http://www.drugfreeworld.org/drugfacts/prescription/rohypnol.html Accessed August 18, 2016.
- Soma Abuse. Drug Abuse website. http://drugabuse.com/library/soma-abuse/ Accessed August 18, 2016.
- Sonata Addiction and Treatment. Addiction Resource website. https://addictionresource.com/drugs/sonata/ Updated August 9, 2016. Accessed August 18, 2016.
- Suboxone Abuse. Drug Abuse website. http://drugabuse.com/library/suboxone-abuse/ Accessed August 18, 2016.
- Valium History and Statistics. Drug Abuse website. http://drugabuse.com/library/valium-history-and-statistics/ Accessed August 18, 2016.
- Vicodin Abuse. Drug Abuse website. http://drugabuse.com/library/vicodin-abuse/#teen-vicodin-abuse Accessed August 18, 2016.
- Xanax: Side Effects, Drug Information. Medical News Today website. http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/263490.php Updated February 4, 2016. Accessed August 18, 2016.
- 20 Profound Xanax Addiction Statistics. Health Research Funding website. http://healthresearchfunding.org/20-profound-xanax-addiction-statistics/ Published February 1, 2015. Accessed August 18, 2016.