In the 1960s, the German pharmaceutical company Grunenthal developed this drug and brought it to market in West Germany in 1977 under the trade name Tramal. About 20 years later, tramadol was introduced in the U.S. for the treatment of cancer and non-cancer pain. Tramadol has unique pharmacology and toxicology characteristics, both similar and different than other narcotic painkillers such as oxycodone or hydrocodone. This means it requires specialized tramadol addiction treatment centers TX can supply. Like those drugs, it binds to opioid receptors in the brain, although it also has antidepressant properties due to its prolonged effects on norepinephrine and serotonin.1,2 Tramadol causes adverse effects related to elevated brain serotonin levels (serotonin syndrome), especially when co-administered with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). A 2006 study found the abuse potential of tramadol was significantly lower than that of codeine. Despite this, prescription drug abuse programs for opioids such as Tramadol are still common. Serious side effects such as seizures have been reported in multiple studies.1,2 Brand names for tramadol in the U.S. include ConZip, Rybix ODT and Ultram. The drug Ultracet is a combination of tramadol and acetaminophen. Tramadol tablets are available in 50 and 100 mg strengths and are usually taken several times a day. Extended-release tablets are available in 100, 150, 200 and 300 mg strengths. Tramadol is also available in oral drops and administered intravenously.1 Tramadol addiction treatment centers TX offers are essential regardless of how the substance is abused. Tramadol Addiction Treatment Centers TX Although tramadol was originally considered a safer alternative to other narcotic analgesics like hydrocodone and methadone, mounting evidence of abuse and withdrawal symptoms raised concerns. In 2014, the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) published revised rules making tramadol a federally controlled Schedule IV drug. Taken orally at high doses, tramadol can produce similar euphoric effects as the commonly abused opiate medication oxycodone (OxyContin). Effective Aug. 18, 2014, the DEA ruling mandates tramadol prescriptions can only be refilled up to five times within six months of the original prescription date. After five refills or after six months, whichever occurs first, a new prescription is required. This rule applies to all controlled Schedule III and IV substances in order to prevent prescription drug abuse.3,4 Extreme Cases of Tramadol Addiction Highly disturbing media reports have been published of people intentionally abusing their pets to obtain tramadol in the U.S. In one case, a woman took her injured 4-year-old dog to an animal hospital near Louisville, Kentucky. After the veterinarian sewed up the wound, the woman requested tramadol, which is also used in animals to control pain. Three days later, she returned with the excuse that her child had flushed the pills down the toilet, so the vet gave her more. The vet became suspicious on the third visit when the dog had a new, clean-cut in addition to the partially healed old wound. It was discovered that the woman was intentionally wounding her dog and \u201cvet-shopping.\u201d She visited multiple vets to obtain prescription medication for her dog and then took it herself to satisfy her addiction. The woman ultimately admitted she had no child and cut her dog with her husband\u2019s disposable razor blade three different times to obtain the tramadol.5 Such cases highlight the need for the tramadol addiction treatment centers TX offers. Tramadol Addiction Treatment TX Stats and Facts \tIn 2013, more than 43 million tramadol prescriptions were written in the U.S.4 \tEmergency room (ER) visits related to adverse reactions to tramadol increased by 145% from 10,000 in 2005 to nearly 27,500 in 2011.6 \tThe greatest increase in tramadol-related ER visits occurred among individuals ages 55 and older, with a 481% increase \u2014 from 892 visits in 2005 to 5,181 visits in 2011.6 \tAccording to the World Anti-Doping Agency, 71% to 82% of tramadol use between 2012 and 2015 in globally monitored sports occurred in cycling.7 \tAbout 95% of people who abuse tramadol have a prior history of other substance abuse.8 Relapse Prevention from Tramadol Rehab Centers Texas Tramadol is used in detox tapering for other opioid abuse due to its weaker binding to opioid receptors. Nevertheless, people addicted to tramadol need\u00a0medically-supervised detox\u00a0themselves, along with pharmacological and behavioral interventions through\u00a0inpatient rehab programs in Texas to treat its abuse and prevent relapse. Support groups and 12-step programs can help prevent relapse after detox and rehab. \tTramadol and Hydrocodone. Healthline website.\u00a0https:\/\/www.healthline.com\/health\/pain-relief\/tramadol-vs-hydrocodone?m0&rw1#Comparison2\u00a0Published March 31, 2015. Accessed February 20, 2017. \tSweileh WM, Shraim NY, Zyoud SH, Al-Jabi SW. Worldwide research productivity on tramadol: a bibliometric analysis.\u00a0Springerplus. 2016;5(1):1108. doi:10.1186\/s40064-016-2801-5. \tTramadol Abuse. Drug Abuse website.\u00a0https:\/\/drugabuse.com\/library\/tramadol-abuse\/\u00a0Accessed February 20, 2017. \tTramadol \u2013 Top 8 Things You Need to Know. Drugs website.\u00a0https:\/\/www.drugs.com\/article\/tramadol-need-to-know.html\u00a0Accessed February 20, 2017. \tLindsey Bever. The horrifying way some drug addicts are now getting their fix.\u00a0The Washington Post. January 23, 2017.\u00a0https:\/\/www.washingtonpost.com\/news\/to-your-health\/wp\/2017\/01\/23\/some-addicts-are-so-desperate-for-drugs-that-theyre-now-taking-medication-prescribed-to-pets\/?utm_term.e813e4ee3eab\u00a0Accessed February 20, 2017. \tSAMHSA reports highlight rise in tramadol-related hospital emergency department visits. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration website.\u00a0https:\/\/www.samhsa.gov\/newsroom\/press-announcements\/201505141130\u00a0Published May 14, 2015. Accessed February 20, 2017. \tTramadol: Why Some Athletes and Experts Want it Banned. Cycling Tips website.\u00a0https:\/\/cyclingtips.com\/news\/kristoff-wins-tour-of-oman-opener\/\u00a0Published February 15, 2017. Accessed February 20, 2017. \tTramadol History and Statistics. Drug Abuse website.\u00a0https:\/\/drugabuse.com\/library\/tramadol-history-and-statistics\/\u00a0Accessed February 20, 2017. Written by The Right Step Editorial Staff Contact our Texas center today for more information on our treatment programs.